Images

It is clearly evident that the following numerous images, which have been obtained form a wide variety of scientific equipment, completely rule out the fact that the plate number ‘7’ has been faked.

There is no fluorescence under both UV and IR, no paper fibre disturbance and no evidence of any offending ink or painting. The right hand 7s are completely original.

 

1- Infrared light examinations: Clearly no fluorescence can be seen.

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Infra red image at 695nm of stamps SK and SL from the Victor Hugo cover.

 

2- Ultraviolet light examinations: Clearly no fluorescence can be seen in the 7s area.

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Ultraviolet image at 365nm of stamps SK and SL from the Victor Hugo cover.

 

3- Depth composition and paper fibre analysis using a Keyence VHX600E digital microscope: This examination has confirmed that there is no paper fibre disturbance, no addition of any pigment and that troughs in the shape of 7s exist. No evidence of any 3s has been found using this method.

 

Image 1: Micrograph showing right-hand side ‘7’ from stamp RL(inverted). Note that the colourless paper fibres are completely clear and untouched, show no evidence of painting and run in and out of the fibre matrix and certainly no evidence of a pre-existing figure ‘3’. They can even be traced as they change in colour from colourless to red. Magnified x250.

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Image 2: Micrograph showing top section of magnified ‘7’ on RHS of stamp SL from the Victor Hugo cover. Note that the paper fibres are completely clear and untouched, show no evidence of painting and run in and out of the fibre matrix. Magnified x1000.

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Image 3: Micrograph of ‘7’ from stamp RL showing depth composition clearly in the shape of a figure ‘7’. Note that the paper fibres are completely clear and untouched, show no evidence of painting and run in and out of the fibre matrix and certainly no evidence of a pre-existing figure ‘3’.

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Image 4: Depth composition analysis of the top of the right-hand ‘7’ from stamp SL. Such a recess of a  colorless area can only be produced through intaglio printing. Again note the completely clear and intact paper fibres.

Fig 11

 

4- Scanning electron microscopy- topographic mode: Has confirmed that the paper fibres have not been disturbed

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SEM image of the paper fibers on stamp RL.

 

4a- Scanning electron microscopy- back scattered mode: Has confirmed that the paper fibres have not been disturbed and that there is no evidence of a previously existing figure 3.

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3-7

Back scattered SEM image of stamp SK from the Victor Hugo Cover. Note that all the colourless areas which are devoid of ink, appear completely dark on the image, ie the border lattice-work and the 7s.  The inked areas appear bright.

This image confirms that the perfect right-hand number ’7′ has not been altered from a previously existing number. Had there been a pre-existing figure 3, then the coloured parts marked by the yellow arrows in the lower image that would have crossed the figure 7 would have appeared bright white.

 

5- Raman spectroscopy: Has confirmed that the ink that printed both the 7s is identical.

Fig 12- Abed compare Raman 7 with standards - Copy

Raman spectra comparison diamond area around second “7” by Professor Gene hall, Rutgers University.
These analyses revealed the red pigment in the printing ink was composed of HgS (vermillion) and red lead (Pb2O3). The chemical compound associated with Ba that was determined by EDXRF could not be identified. Chromium was identified as lead chromate; according to Professor Gene Hall, this was “not homogenous or part of a faking ink”. No other compound was detected other than the above mentioned two that printed the stamps.

It is more than likely that in an area on a plate that has been re-engraved one would expect contamination to be introduced in one way or another. Perhaps an engravers cleaning fluid made up of say chromic and/or phosphoric acids, through the disturbance of the metal surface, the introduction of a metal plug, or contamination from a graver or burin.

Furthermore the newly engraved area which maybe shallower or deeper than its surroundings will naturally hold more or less ink and this will in turn show an increased or a reduced elemental presence.

Scientific analysis will detect these anomalies which clearly do not influence, in any way, the observed evidence which confirms that the stamps are completely untampered with.

 

6- Light microsocopy: The image was obtained from a printed area of stamp SK at a magnification of x100. As is clearly evident, the paper fibers are matted and very much interwoven and any tampering, abrasion, scraping or removal of these fibers would undoubtedly be clearly seen under this magnification.

light microscopy

7- Foster Freeman VSC6000 Comparator: Details of the findings from the RPSL using their VSC6000 and those of Mr Robert Radley who repeated the examination  in order to check the veracity of their findings will be fully discussed in a report which is currently under preparation. The report will discuss the examination of the stamps under UV, IR and at 545-675nm.

 

 

As a point of interest, illustrated below on the left is a reversed image of stamp SK from the Hugo cover next to it is the Tapling stamp BA. The identical nature of these simple images visually demonstrate the fact that the right-hand 7s on the Victor Hugo stamp SK have not been altered.

 

ks with flaw

77 BA - Copy